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A B C D1 D2 E F G H I L M N O P R S T U


T, the seventeenth letter of the Irish alphabet, and in the
Ogham alphabet the third letter in the second or h- group,
IGT Introd. § 4 . Irish name tinne `holly' : tinne ... .i.
cuileann, Auraic. 1180 . Note also trían .i. aill inde sin
5aniu ` trian, t, another thing the meaning of that today,'
5549 .
Frequ. written tt in O. and Mid. Ir. (cf. KZ xxxvi 202 ff. ).
The group st is somet. written sd in Mid. and Mod. Ir.
Lenited th is somet. confused with ch : tothlugud, ZCP
10 iii 35.12 = tochlugadh, Études Celt. ii 298.10 . t'eichsi,
teithsi v.l., IGT Decl. ex. 998 . chreich, chreith, v.l. ex.
1001 . Cf. sethnu later sechnóin, ZCP xii 287 , and IGT
Introd. 22.26 .
In O. and Mid. Irish t(t), when initial or preceded by s,
15always represents voiceless t. In other positions it may
also represent voiced d. In O. Ir. this value of t is regular
after vowels (cét, mod. céad), optional after consonants.
See Thurn. Hdb. § 29 - §30 .
Lenition of t is regularly marked in MSS. of all periods.
20The pronunciation of th as h dates ( Thurn. Hdb. § 119 )
from the 11th century, but according to O'Rahilly, Her-
mathena xliv 163 ff. , from the end of the 13th. Previous
to this we must suppose a dental spirant of the type of Ger-
manic þ. th also occasionally alternates with f (pron. h) :
25 othrála (ofrála), ZCP vi 24 z , cf. cona fuigsin (thuigsin),
Études Celt. i 274.22 , and Mod. Ir. tathaint (—f—). In the
possessive 2 s. (see it) it is sometimes replaced by h— :
h'anora, ZCP vi 81.19 . t resists or loses lenition : (a) When
geminated (see infra). (b) In the groups st, rt (but fre-
30quently —rth— in part., see Thurn. Hdb. § 714 ), lt, cht. (c) In
common with d, after final n of a preceding word. (d) Fre-
quently before initial s- of a closely-following word : in
chrut-so, —sin, Sg. 211b4 , 63a14 . in slogattsa, LL 398a18 .
Note also fáitsine `prophecy,' Wb 30d23 , in Ml fáissine
35 fáithsine, q.v. See also IGT Introd. § 33 , § 34 . (e) When
a geminated sound results from contact of th and th or dh :
-mitter <*mid-ther, indnite <*ind-nith-the. See Thurn.
Hdb. § 134 , Meyer ZCP xiii 191.
Nasalisation of t is seldom marked in Old and Middle
40Irish, but note occasional spellings like con·danicc, Wb 3c27 ,
beside con·tanic, 3a1 , and the stereotyped oldaas (taas).
The spelling tt is found occasionally in O. Ir., more fre-
quently in Mid. Ir. In Mod. Ir. nasalisation is marked by a
prefixed d-. Cf. and trí naraid their three charioteers,
45 TBC² 804 . See Ériu xi 148 - 9 .
t frequently results from original d in contact with lenited
ṡ: díltud <*dí-ṡlonduth, Thurn. Hdb. § 128 . intamail
<*indṡamail, int ṡúil, int ṡaeguil. This has given rise to the
prefixing of t (where etymologically unjustifiable) as a
50sign of lenition : rochōirigh a tsleg re thaeb, ZCP xiii 220.1 .
tainic crich tsaogail, TTebe 3718 , dar mullach tsleibi Par-
nars, 3714 . Note also : astsruth, SR 1665 . istsruth,
1682 . riastṡluag, 2129 . See IGT Introd. 17.19 . th arises
from dh+h (<ṡ) in miathamla <miad+ṡamail, see Ped.
55 i 408 . t <dh after l, n, is found in rélto (gs. of rélad). ingan-
tach (ingnad), etc., Ped. i 417 . Also after voiceless sounds :
macthi, Wb 12c9 (—de), though in such cases etymological
considerations often cause the original d to be restored :
mucde suinus, Sg. 37b9 , cf. Thurn. Hdb. § 121 . There are
60also some cases of th for d due, apparently, to variations in
pronunciation, e.g. búaith (—d), Wb 11a7 . díthnad, 14b15
(do-dona), more usually dídnad. t also represents the
voiced d arising from *nt, *mt in words like cotlud <con-
tuil, cét <*kṃtom etc., and the voiceless t from k+d in
65 etlae <*ek(s)dāl-, etc.
In loanwords t represents W. t, th, dd (exx. Ped. i 23 ,
24 , 509 ), Lat. t, tt ( Ped. i 231 , 4 ). Also W. t=d ( Ped. i 24 ),
and intervocalic and final Lat. t in words borrowed through
W. ( Ped. i 232 , 3 ).

70 1 t pronForm of the poss. adj. 2 s. (see do) with vowel elided before
nouns beginning with vowles and lenited f before a vowel :
tortachtae, Ml 108a1 . tesérge, Thes. ii 242.4 . t'aiccept, Fél.
12.19 . t'ordan, Prol. 276 . t'intliocht, SR 1328 . th'(ḟ)or-
fáiltius, CRR 18 . bhar th'(ḟ)oesam, 40 . dásacht t'fheirge,
75 TSh. 4210 . th'easgcaraid, 1064 . h'anora, ZCP vi 81.19 .

2 t pronForm of poss. adj. 2 s. (see do) used after prepositions
ending in vowels : dit gnímaib, Wb 31c8 . dot edbartaib,
Ml 45b6 . dot brecad-sa, PH 3836 . dot aire, TSh. 3185 .
let mháthair, let athair, let toide, SG 214.36 . Also in the
later language after prepositions ending in consonants
with intervening secondary vowel : ocut iarraid, PH 2605 .
5 agod dhíorghadh, TSh. 2632 , earlier ac du (Ml).