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A B C D1 D2 E F G H I L M N O P R S T U


M, the tenth letter of the Irish alphabet, was in the Ogham
alphabet called by the name muin ` vine ' and was the first
letter of the third aicme or letter-group, Auraic. 993 , 1186 .
1 in early Irish orthography the letter m represents two
5sounds:
i In the following cases it was a voiced nasal labial: (a)
initial, folld. by a vowel, l or r; (b) in the initial combination
sm; (c) before b and p; (d) medial and final after a vowel
where it represents early -mm (< mb, mp, sm, dm): in these
10cases it was by O.Ir. scribes generally doubled in order to
distinguish it from lenited m, a practice which continued to
be common during the entire Mid.Ir. period. E.g. am(m)
< Indog. *esmi, cf. Lat. sum; cam(m) < *camb; ammus
<ad-mess. (e) after l, n, and r, where no intermediate vowel
15has fallen out, e.g. calma, ainm, cuirm. (f) in eclipsis of b,
b > m (written mb). In dán díreach unlenited m was classed
for purposes of rhyme with ll, nn, ng, and rr, see Meyer,
Primer of Irish Metrics, p. 7 .
ii In other cases medial or final m represents lenited m
20(voiced spirant); in late Mid. and Mod.Ir. denoted by mh
or .
E.g. sam (cf. Mod.Ir. samhradh, W. haf), clam (W. claf), dam
`ox' (W. dafad `sheep'), amles (W. afles), damnae (W. defnydd).
In dán díreach lenited m was classed for rhyming purposes
25with bh, dh, gh, l, n, r, see Meyer, loc. cit.
2 in Lat. loan-words initial m remains: midach (<medicus);
mocol (<macula). In early loan-words medial m between
vowels is lenited: sciam (<schēma); domnach (<dominic-);
sechtmain (<septimana); but mm in damnaim (<damn-are),
30 arm (<arm-a), comman (<commun-ire), etc.
Occas. Irish lenited m represents Lat. medial b: promaim
(mod. fromhaim) <probare; conversely mebair (mebuir,
memair) <memoria.
3 the initial combinations ml, mr which occur in Old and
35early Mid.Ir. give way in the Mid.Ir. period to bl, br; mlith
(<mel- `grind'), mrath (cf. mairnid) > blith, brath. See
words given under ml, mr.
4 O.Ir. medial and final mb>mm in the Mid.Ir. period.
E.g. gsm. caimb, AU 657 (camm `crooked'). cumbae, AU 829
40(vn. of com-ben-), later cumma. imbairecc, AU 700 , imm-
bairecc, 709 (<imb-air-icc-), beside immarecc, 696 . O.Ir.
imbi (imb + 3 s. m. pron.), AU 903 , LU 8074 , 8098 , etc., later
immi, imme.
This change had already begun in O.Ir., esp. in forms of
45the copula: ar mad (= armbad), Wb. 26b31 , commad (= com-
bad), 17a23 (past subj.), and in the prep. imb folld. by another
proclitic word; see Pedersen i 118.
5 medial lenited m and b are occasionally interchanged by
scribes; see for exx. mebair and mimasc given below; Muir
50Robur (<mare rubrum), beside Muir Romair; cumrech
(<com-rig-), beside cuibrech; rot-marmais, SR 1680 (= rot-
marbais), beside robarbthar (= ro marbthar), LU 7121 ( BDD
80 ).

m' poss. pron. 1 s., see mo.

55 1 -m- inf. pron. 1 s., see .

2 -m- in Old and Mid.Ir. before b often represents eclipsis of
latter after 3 s. m. inf. pron.: in rí chondaigi . . . manimbera
latt ní fogbái unless thou bring him with thee, Thes. ii 296.6 .
dombeir uadh gives it away, Laws iv 36.28 Comm.

60 1 ma (in B. na filed) = maith good , as pred. and subst.: faolfat
a nomen . . . do gach eargnaidh len' ma (.i. len maith) a ét
I will tell his name to every well-informed person who desires to
find it
, ZCP v 484 § 8 = iii 378 . a ma (.i. a maith), v 485 § 3 .
? amru cách ór oeibligad (.i. is ferr lais olda cech or . . . iarna
65bruindid) ina ma (.i. in log mor .i. nem), Amra Senáin § 8
( ZCP iii 223 ).

2 ma, Mid.Ir. corruption of preps. fo and imm q.v.

3 má (ma) conj. if. Synopsis of forms in O.Ir. and Mid.Ir.
(forms found only in latter are enclosed in square brackets):
70 A. With vbs. other than copula: ma (Glosses): má, Ml.
85d6 , freq. in Mid.Ir.; mai, AU 617 ; [mad]; folld. by deutero-
tonic verb-form; lenites follg. cons. (but cf. ma rrufeste, Wb.
9c8 ) and sometimes prefixes h to follg. vowel. Elision before
follg. a is rare: mararubart (= ma ararubart), Ml. 112b5 ;
75 matchím if I see, TBC 3357 , matchí if thou seest, 3353 = TBC²
2592 , 2587 . With neg.: mani; mini, Wb. 9d1 ; [mane, mana,
maine, meni; min-e, -a; mun-i, -a].
B. With copula: (a) folld. by indic.: pres. 1 s. [masam,
CCath. 596. ] 2 s. [massat, LU 6971 = BDD 62. masat, PH
4708. másat, Buile S. 100.13 .] 3 s. mas(s)u. masa, Ml. 108a16 ,
118a5 . maso, SR 3497 (mafo MS.). [mas, más]. (neg.) manid.
3 pl. matu hé, Wb. 2c14 .
5(b) folld. by subj.: pres. 1 s. [madam, Acall. 800. madham,
CCath. 4210. ] (neg.) mainba, Wb. 17c10 . [munbáam, Acall.
1071. ] 2 s. [? madat, TBC² 2641 = madit, TBC 3442. mádat,
TTr.² 1801. ] 3 s. mad; (neg.) manip [menip, minab, munab].
3 pl. mat, Wb. 28c21 , Sg. 189b4 , CRR 5 , Laws ii 324.6 , 362.25 ,
10 382.2 (all text). [madat, ZCP viii 217 § 2. ] (neg.) mainbet,
Wb. 11c5 . manibat, Ml. 24c1 . [menbat, LL 265b36 = MU
26.27 ]. impf. 2 s. (neg.) [menbadat, RC xiv 426 § 47 ]. 3 s.
mad (?). (neg.) mainbad, Wb. 4a20 . mainbed 6c31 , 9b19 .
manibad, Ml. 134b3 . manibbad, Sg. 17b8 . manipad, Mon.
15Tall. § 4. ? manibat, Trip. 78.18 . manibed, SR 4129. men-
bad, 4643 . manbad, LU 3771 = SC 34. [munbad.] 3 pl.
matis, Wb. 11a22 . 5b15 . Ml. 73d1 . 40c17 ( ma atis). (neg.)
maniptis, 73d1 .
Mod.Ir. forms: má, (neg.) muna. With cop.: má's (mé, tú,
20 é, etc.), máiseadh; madh (early Mod.Ir., now obsolete); (neg.)
munab; in some dialects mun- becomes mur-: murab eadh,
Luc. Fid. 325.10 ; mura mbeith, 259.5 ; mur bhfuil, 262.18 .
mur ttaisbeunair, 284.1 .
I In O. and Mid.Ir. used in protasis of a conditional state-
25ment, if ; with neg. if . . . not, unless ; folld. by (A) indic. for a
present or past condition, (B) pres. subj. for a future condi-
tion, (C) impf. subj. for a remote future or unfulfilled condition
( Thurn. Hdb. § 890 ).
A. With indic.: (a) with vbs. other than copula. In O.Ir.
30when the follg. vb. has no infixed pron., ma infixes -d-, see
Thurn. § 425 , Ped. § 537. ma chomalnit a ngrád . . . ma
ru-d-choiscset a mmuinter if they fulfil . . . if they have cor-
rected
, Wb. 28c7 . ma du-d-esti ní . . . íccfidir if aught is lacking
. . . it will be made good
, 25a30 . ma du-d-ell ní if he has stolen
35aught
, 22b7 . mani-d-chretid esséirge Crist . . . nib-noíbfea for
n-ires if ye do not believe, 13b19 . ma du-d-rignius ní if I have
done aught
, Ml. 23c27 . rot-bia onóir ma fíraid duit . . . ind
fissiu do fuaslucud, SR 3355. ma ro sárugus do smacht, 1403 .
ma thecait Ulaid, ní theciub-sa, TBC 5019. ma ra-charais . . .
40fǽ lais if thou hast loved him, 4561 . má thánic a thrath, 3629 .
ma do-s-gní Dia feirg fri re mbicc . . . dogēna ar comdidnad
iarum, PH 6637. ma daronus-[s]a bar n-osaic-se, 5269 . mad
cretid Crist, atber! 448 . is peccad . . . do neoch cen aíne do
dénam . . . mad conicc, 6029 . munob (mánop LU) gaib far
45nglindi unless your bonds hold you, TBC² 1515. at meirb
mani-d-frescai thou art weak unless thou hope for it, Fél.
July 19 . mani-d-cuala if thou heardest not of him, June 13 .
mani chumaic nech iat do dénam, PH 4697
With the subst. vb. the form fil is used in 3 s. pres. in O.Ir.
50( Ped. § 641 ), but tá is common in Mid.Ir. ma nu-dub-feil i
n-ellug coirp Crist, adib cland Abrache, Wb. 19c20 . ma nud-
fil etir á foraithmet if there is any memory of them, Ml. 107d12 .
ma nod-fil fer i nhEre, ZCP viii 311.34 . má ta nech icon
cloich thall, SR 6157. ma tá ocaib 'sin dun . . . ┐ mani ḟail,
55 TBC 1765. ma ta cumachta latt, PH 3871. ma tá ceol a nim,
cid nach biad i talmain? Acall. 3484. manas-fuil os an seol-
chrann if it is not above the mast, Leb. Gab. i 256.
(b) with copula (generally used to emphasize some member
of the conditional clause). masu du réir spirito ataaith if ye
60are subject to the Spirit
, Wb. 20b16 . massu cut séitchi ro
cretis . . . manid co séitchi ro cretis, 10a29 , 30 . masa choimdiu
if he is lord, Ml. 108c16 . masu ed sluindes ind rann if this is
what the part of speech expresses
, Sg. 27a11 . maso ḟír . . . for
ṁbith iarmui do Abram, tucaid uaib etere if it is true that
65ye are A.'s descendants
, SR 3497. más co mbaraind debtha
totháet, FB 46. mas iat benas in fid, TBC 1398. masa thú |
demin limm isat lomthru, 3659 . masa mac Dé tu, slanaig tu
fén if thou art the son of God, PH 2864. masat mac Dé iar fhír,
apair . . ., 4708 . matu hé ata horpamin indí ro chomalnaiset
70recht if those who have fulfilled the law are heirs, Wb. 2c14 .
masat Herennaig ┐ menbat allmaraig, isat Ulaid, LL 365b36
= MU 26.27 . mástat [= másat] carait . . . mastat námait,
FB 84 = masad . . . masdod, ZCP iv. 172.33 . manid innonn
forcital linn unless our teaching is the same, Wb. 17b32 . manid
75caindleóracht in tige as áil duit do chosnam, FB 92 = munid
ZCP iv 175.20 . ni cian bai hIssau ic seilgc | manid gáu dó . . .
mochthánic astsleib . . . mas e thuc in sére-se, SR 2866 , 2868 .
The 3 s. ind. form manid passes early out of use, giving way to
the subj. manip (minab, munab): mas o Dia ata in fhís-[s]ea ┐
minap togoethad diabuil, PH 1542. minab lór lett a n-abair
. . . dféch thuas, 7639 .
B. With pres. subj. (a) with vbs. other than copula. is
5deid som ma arí in fer-so maní n-airi immurgu ní deid if he
find this man; if however he find him not
, Ml. 30d24 . ma dugneu,
23c24 . mani bée dechur isint senmuim ni tucatar inna rríara,
Wb. 12c43 . mani-s-mbe bethu suthin unless they have eternal
life
, 13b20 . mani eple de if he die not of it, Sg. 181a5 . ma
10ro-m-thoicther-sa . . . mani-m-rothcaither, Thes. ii 293.6
( SP i 5 ). ma dorontar ón if it can be managed, Mon. Tall. 52.
mani-mbé sēt sīrhettla, meni tabra dilgud dam, SR 2086.
mani thetarrais issin chetforgam, ni thetarrais co fescor,
TBC² 650 (LU) = maini tetarrais, YBL. mono thæth in
15ḟirmimint . . . nó mani thí in ḟarggi, TBC 5975. manu thisat,
4271 . moni digsid ass . . . no-bor-mairfither, IT i 75.3 . mairg
dobeir seirc do duni | mene-s-tarda dia airi, SC 44. mine rab
déirc accum unless I have charity, PH 5910. mine fhacur-sa
slicht na cló . . . ní chretiub unless I see, 6694 .
20(b) with copula: mad hinunn a n-etargnae in chetnidi ┐ in
dirṡuidigthi bid hinunn randatu doib if the notion of the primi-
tive and that of the derivative be the same, they will have the same
particularity
, Sg. 188a7 . mad in chruth sin beithe if ye be in
that wise
(gl. pacem habete et Deus . . . erit vobiscum), Wb. 18b16 .
25 mad marb duini . . . do chumaid . . . bid marb Iacob if any one
should die of grief
, SR 3601. mad hi cein . . . menip cían, 6125 ,
6127 . mad nóeb ar-id-lega if he who recites it be holy, Fél. Ep.
178. mad ḟorum-sa bus róen, TBC 3750. mad iat fir Herend
bes and, CRR 11. mád co féirg dothí C. . . . is amlaid coto-
30méla-ni, FB 52. mad amlaid seo dechsam d'airitin chuirp
Crist (=si . . . accedamus ad hanc coenam sanctam), PH 5353.
mat hé na briathra-sa forcane if these be the words thou teachest,
Wb. 28c21 . mat anmann adiechta emnatar and is écen coma-
comol if nouns adjective be doubled there a conjunction is neces-
35sary
(but not in other cases), Sg. 189b4 . mat ruanaid if they
prove valiant
, CRR 5. ní torbe la suidib [precept] manip
sulbair unless it be eloquent, Wb. 8a12 . mad aire chuinces sin
. . . ┐ manip ar daig lessa, PH 7990. munba deóin le Righ na
rann . . . munbo cairnech in craidhe, ZCP vi 268.11 , 12 .
40 manibat fer[r]-som de (gl. si non . . . fecerit meliores), Ml. 24c1 .
The form mad (madh) continues in use in early Mod.Ir.:
madh fírinneach . . . comhrádh an duine . . . madh bréagach,
TSh. 1777.
C. With impf. subj., generally corresponding to an impf.
45subj. or conditional in apodosis and sometimes with force of
pluperfect.
(a) with vbs. other than copula: ma nubed if it existed, Sg.
31b21 . ni tibertis piana foraib mani esersitis if they did not
rise
, Ml. 15c7 . ma doruirminn if I should recount, Fél. Ep. 128.
50(with tmesis) ma ro loídib lammis if we dared in lays, ib.
Feb. 27. meni bethe ar in tṡluagud-sa . . . doraismis Ultu if
thou wert not in this hosting
, TBC 766. monu thiastáis if they
should not come
, 4277 . mina chredind-se he . . . nis-cuirfind
techta if I did not believe in him, PH 449. muna mbeith acht
55an aonghamhnach istigh were there but one stripper in the
house
, Keat. iii 2757. With pluperf. force: ba miscuis atroil-
lisset . . . mani thised trocaire if mercy had not come, Wb. 4c15 .
ma rrufeste ní gētte if ye had known, ye would not snatch, 9c8 .
mani thorasta mo dáil . . . no bíad Nabál cen anmain if thou
60hadst not come to meet me
, SR 6321. ni boi i nnim . . . dúl tísad
frind, mine thísad Lucifer, MacCarthy 62.5 = LB 112a11 .
mina báitea-su mé . . . nis-bíad pian form hadst thou not
drowned me
, PH 8258. With cond. in late text: ma ragad
cliar dimdach de `if a company went grumbling from him',
65 Ériu iv 214 § 10 (gé bheith v.l.).
(b) with copula: mad forṅgaire dognein, docoischifed pían
a thairmthecht if it were a command I gave, Wb. 10a27 . ní bad
samlaid son mad on chetnidiu nobed this would not be so if it
were from the primitive
, Sg. 207b2 . mad ed asberad . . . is ed
70rogigsed if he had said . . . this is what he would have prayed for,
Ml. 32d5 . mád do Laegaire . . . tisad ág . . . no sirfed hErind,
SC 29. ni ráncatar som less a scríbint mainbed díar nertad ni
they have not needed to be written unless it were to strengthen us,
Wb. 6c31 . docoith dígal forru: matis tuicsi ní rígad if they
75had been elect it would not have come
, 11a22 . matis mu namait
dudagnetis ┐ maniptis mu charait dudagnetis had it been my
enemies and not my friends that did them
, Ml. 73d1 . is é in
claideb dobéraind . . . menbadat [sic leg.] aide if thou wert not
(my) fosterer, RC xiv 426 § 47. munbud coll crabaidh . . . robo
80gairit linn t'accallaim-si if it were not a breach of piety, Acall.
127. In follg. instance, mad appears in combination with an
absolute form of the copula: adubairt an Díabul ris, mádh
bo mac Dé é arán do denum dona clochaib, Maund. 91.
II Special uses of má+copula.
85(a) masu ed if it is that, if so is used in Sg. to express doubt
of a foregoing statement; 21b6 , 50b13 , 124a1 . In later Mid.Ir.
sometimes with force of a concessive particle = if so, in that
case, then , or to introduce a contrasting statement: glosses
igitur, BB 299b28 . sluindfet a thri buada cech ócthigirn . . .
Tri meth octhigirn massed `on the other hand', Ériu ix 46 § 12
5= LL 147b23 . Common in mod. lang.: is ón tTighearna atá
imtheacht an duine; cionnus fhédus duine maiseadh a shlighe
féin do thuigsin? how then can a man understand, Prov. xx 24.
gion go bhfuil an teine-se síorraidhe, maiseadh is iongantach
an truime atá innte (=etsi non sit aeternus, miro tamen modo
10gravis est), TSh. 3999. tar ceann go dtugthar Scotia d'ainm
ar an gcuid úd don Bhreatain . . . maseadh foillsighidh Beda
go ngairthí an t-ainm sin d'Éirinn nevertheless , Keat. ii 5868.
(b) manibad (3 s. impf. subj. cop.) often appears folld. by a
subst. in elliptical sentence, if it were not . . ., but for . . . ; cf.
15 Wb. 9b1 : minibed croís ni bíad etrad if there were not gluttony.
manibed Moísi . . . óenfer díb nā faicbed beo that, had it not been
for Moses, he would not have left one man of them alive
, SR 4129.
manbad omain Dé . . . no berad leis cenn Saúil but for the fear
of God
, 6393 . minabad do shnadad, robtis do reṅga rigthi,
20 TBC² 1182. munbad Conall . . . ropad forainne bad róen,
CRR 56. ní biadh iffern . . . minbadh mé there would be no
hell . . . but for me
, Ériu iii 148 § 4. manibat ainmnet . . .
nutscaílfeth cumachta Dé `but for my (? God's) patience', Trip.
78.18 (but cf. reading in Arch. iii 20.4 : mani bit ainmnit .i.
25ciuin). With pres. subj.: ni thánic . . . fer bud amra manip
[manipad v.l.] do chruas save for thy hardness, 120.4 . Cf.
mainbad fororaid in rí had not the King lent aid (?), Hy. v 32 ,
with gl. mani fortachtaiged T, mani fured F; edd. Thes.
( ii 335 ) connects mainbad with follg. line.
30(c) in older language when the subject of a vb. in 1 pl. is
analysed as `thou and I', the formula: mad tú if it be thou is
used, the 1 s. pron. being already implied in the vb. (see
Zeitschr. für vergleichende Sprachforschung xlviii 51 ). dia
mbamur mad tu leis ic foclaimb bindiusai when thou and I
35were with him
, ZCP iii 249 § 64. cia bem-ne madh tu . . . i
n-airisem, Anecd. ii 9.3 . cid nach n-acallmis mad tu? why
should not you and I converse?
ZCP xiii 268.3 . consáiter
etrunni mad tú between thee and me, IT iii 244.1 . Cf. anas
bermaisin matau (leg. an-asbermais-ni mad tú?), ZCP viii 329.
4026 = anasbermaisiu ma táu, LL 330c9 , anasbermaisim matu,
BB 166a6 .
(d) mad folld. by a subst. or equivalent often serves to
introduce a new subject of discourse or a contrast = as for,
with regard to: mad messe, ba dethbir dam, etc., SC 45. madh
45é Fraech immorro, ro eirigh co moch as, ZCP xiii 171.3 . mád
ind Assia beg immorro, TTr.² 1046. madh a n-adhnacol ní
cæmais as for burying them, thou wilt not be able, Anecd. i 72
§ 198 . mád in ra brethaigestar Cúruí as for C.'s judgement,
FB 90. madh an ro dusaig do marbaib | is mó milib as for the
50dead he raised
, Arch. iii 303 § 11. mad nofail [leg. 'na fail?]
d'hilphianaibh ann . . . lia nāt luibi as for all the divers punish-
ments there
. . . (they are) more in number than herbs (?), SR 933
(where Stokes takes mad as = immad quantity). mad o Adam
. . . co ngénair mac De, cóic mili is cét . . . ocus sé bliadna
55nochat as for (the period) from Adam to the birth of the Son of
God
, 2333 . is dō a óenur do nach airchend bás . . . ar mád
sinne immorro is a[irchenn], Thes. ii 351.23 . madh iad clann
R. tra, así comhairle doronsat, FM iii 226.5 .
(e) similarly in the common formula: mad iar (do réir, etc.)
60(if it be) according to: mad du stoir . . . mad du rúin according
to the literal sense . . . according to the mystic sense
, Ml. 44b4 , 6 .
mad iar sians imorro . . . is ed doforne, PH 3449. mad iar
Cirine . . . mad iar n-Augustin, 6435 . mad iar n-araile im-
morro, issi a liathroit, etc., TBC² 525. mad do reir na sgoile,
65 MacCarthy 278.5 . Cf. also: dobí macaem . . . arna damnad
docum a loiscthi tria drúis do denam di (mado fis), Maund. 57 ;
leg. mad ō fis if it be from knowledge (= if it be true)?
(f) similarly in phrases like: mad cose up to this, hitherto , in
which mad appears to be a mere expletive. ní ḟetatar . . . inad
70beo-sa mad cose, TBC 4940 , cf. 739 . dulig sár ar bar sluagaib
mád cose, LL 238b23 ( TTr. 1615 ). Áth nÍ. a ainm mad cosin,
Áth F. a ainm o ṡain ille, TBC 4948. mad colléic, 5148 . mad
gustráthsa, 5111 . ni rugusa troidh theithidh . . . má guse,
ZCP viii 551.20 . mad costrasta ` just now ', MR 262.24 .
75 III Acht má (mani): (a) in affirm. sent., acht má = `but if',
unless: acht massu made in chretem except the belief is vain,
Wb. 13a34 . nocon ḟetar-sa ac[h]t mad sin | cid imma ndernad
unless that be (the reason), TBC 608. acht má. dothísad . . . ni
reg-sa, Trip. 118.14 . ní thic do neoch acht mád doneth fein
80[acht mine dernad LB] unless [God ] were to do it Himself,
FA 9. acht ma tecmadh secht tengt[h]a filed i cinn aenduine
. . . do beth ní dia chomrumuib gan turim, ZCP viii 111.16 .
acht madh chena even so, nevertheless , Laws iii 542.9 Comm.
(b) acht mad, folld. by subst. unless it be . . ., except, saving
85. . . only , generally after neg. sent. acht mad Rab . . . ni therna
. . . oenfer, SR 5069. ni ruc claind . . . acht mad óeningin, IT
i 130.14 . cia doragad and acht mad Findchad? CRR 8. ní
mairenn don muintir . . . acht mád missi, Acall. 3320. co na
raibi acht madh foraithmed bec di i nErinn, Acall. iii 4.13 .
ro fetar-sa co na bia maith eitir de acht madh olc uili, CCath.
5 4603. ní therno eladach betha dib acht ma misi, ZCP xiii
233.13 .
(c) acht mani unless indeed (a more emphatic concession
than mani). nad ḟetar-sa . . . act manip íat in Galían, CRR 11.
ni raga ass . . . acht mani-t-ainge ben unless a woman protect
10thee
, SC 14. in aíne cen in almsain is bec a tarba, acht mani
beth do bochta neich co na raib aicce almsa dobera unless
one's poverty were such that one had no alms to give
, PH 4972.
acht manibad drochduine he, ni thindlecmais-ni det-siu he,
2698 . is maith [ind elada] . . . acht muna beth sianargan in
15brechta sídhe inti, Acall. 3482 (`but for a twang of the fairy
spell that infests it
', SG ii 191 ).
IV In Mid.Ir. mad dá (dia) often takes the place of má
folld. by subj.
(a) mad da tí a thig, CRR 22. méraid ní bus lia a laídhi |
20madh dá ndíla a commaíne if she requite, Acall. 801. mad da
ríus Emain, TBC 1208 , cf. 3416 . mad da mbeind-se i crichaib
Ulad, CRR 8. Exceptionally with pret.indic.: mád dammamar
[madam bámar, St.; leg. mad da mbámar] allanair [sic leg.] ac
Scathaig if we were (still) yonder with S., TBC 4102 , cf. 4039 .
25(b) mad dia ti taris, is bǽth, TBC 1644. mad dian bérthai
[mad dia mberthai, St.] uide uad, 595 . mad dia marbthar
Mani mór, | bid díth cethern, TFerbe 370 . mád dia follam-
naige co fírén in rí, PH 4086. ba hed adgegmis-ni ani sin mad
dia fédmais, IT ii2 228 § 3 . mad dia mbeth at cumung if it
30were in thy power
, RC vi 175.54 . With indic.: madh dia
ndeni-siu forru if thou do [it ] to please them, BNnÉ 304 § 16.
V Other idioms: (a) inge má unless: iṅge mad etarscartha
unless it be separated, Sg. 75b5 . inge mad dligtechu in ceili,
Laws ii 338.1 , cf. O'Dav. 708. Scarcely, hardly: ingi ma
35rochoillset fir, TBC² 265. as ing má ro thérna neach riamh
hardly any one escaped, Hugh Roe. fo. 15 a . go mbo hing ma
rob éigen . . . a n-airm d'imbirt forra [sic leg.] it was hardly
necessary
, fo. 81b . With subj.: iss ing ma rasoissed [sic leg.]
cind mile bliadan a dhomhnai it could hardly reach its bottom,
40 Ériu ii 132 § 109. See ing, inge.
(b) is becc má `it is little if', scarcely: is beac ma ba oirr-
dearca Concobhar C. was scarcely more illustrious, CF 411.
(c) ní mór má: ni mor masa incretmi he it is almost incred-
ible
, LB 152b16 . ní mór má doērna sceola indisen scel hardly
45a fugitive escaped
, BDD 158. ni mór má ro proinnigsiot they
scarcely broke their fast
, FM vi 2288.22 .
VI Rarely used to introduce a subst. clause: ni cuman lim
ma rudbaitsius nach n-aile, Wb. 8a3 . robú mór a homun lium-
sa ón mad and atbelmais-ni . . . ┐ mani-n-soirthae my fear of
50it was great that we should die . . . and that we should not be
delivered
, Ml. 96a10 . is dual dun mani [mina v.l.] torgoethat
in[na] duailc[h]i it behoves us that vices should not deceive us,
ZCP iii 450.4 .
VII In early Mod.Ir. má (folld. or not by nó) is used excep-
55tionally to introduce a disjunctive clause, whether (Lat. sive):
madh beag nó mór an chréacht doníthi leo, ní ghabhadh
leigheas greim don othar, Keat. ii 1731. ma's beo marbh iad
whether they be alive or dead, Parrth. Anma 327.10 . mas olc
maith me, 343.22 .