Cite this: eDIL s.v. tú or dil.ie/42137

Forms: síi, tú, tu, tú, túsu, tusu, tussu, tússu, tusso, tus(s)a, tusai, síi, sib, sis(s)i, sib, (s)ib-si, -se, sissi, thvsv, sib, tái, tui, sethar[si], sár, -t-, -b-, tot, tat, t, dob, dub, tob, tab, frit-, cot-, at-, add-, atd-, att-, dat, dit, dob, dub, dab, dit, nachibfel, -t-, bar, far, -at, -ut, -b, isat, isat, atabar, feartot, sóerfudut, -t, -ib, -su, -siu, indiutsiu, su, daitso, -so, -seo, détso, latso, -seo, -sa, -si, -sa, -si, -se, -si, -se, -siu, -sib, -si

pron. of 2 pers. sg.

pl. síi (later sib).

I Independent (accented) forms:

1 nom. s. tú. tu, Ml 92a2 , 14 , 17 . In Mid. Ir. frequently and in Mod. Ir. regularly with lenited -t- when used as object of verb or with copula (except when lenition phonetically impossible, e.g. after -s- and -n-), see below. With emphasising pron.: tú su, Ml 92a17 . túsu, Pcr. 2a2 . tusu, Ml 78b18 . PH 2926 . TTebe 677 . In O.Ir. usually tussu. tússu, SR 1788 . tusso, ScM.² 15 . In Mid. and Mod. Ir. tus(s)a. tusai, IT i 120.22 . pl. síi, Wb. 25a3 . In Mid. and Mod. Ir. sib (ib) (orig. form with emph. pron.). With emph. pron.: O.Ir. sis(s)i. sib, Wb 19c20 . In Mid. and Mod. Ir. (s)ib-si, -se.

(a) Immediately following 3 s. cop. in sentences con- taining a substantive: is sissi in tempul sin, Wb 8d7 . is sissi ind idbart, 23c32 . is tú mo ruiri, Fél. Prol. 14 . ni thu Issau semnach na slóg, | acht is tú int-engach Iacób, SR 2875 - 6 . is tú láech na cernd, LU 8135 ( FB 10 ). iss tu ri side nErinn, RC iii 345.5 . in tu-sa rig na n-Iúdaide ? PH 3247 . masa thú ... | gilla ind fir, LU 3724 ( SC 33 ). a Fhir diad masa thú `wenn du es bist,' TBC 3659 . masa thusa sin, TTebe 4723 . is tusa ben is annsa lium-sa, St. Ercuil 2284 . With omission of copula: sib cuaine in da conclann, Ir. Texts ii 34 § 26.

(b) With follg. relative clause: bad sissi coneit, Wb 6c1 . co mbad sissi do berad teist dimsa, 18a3 . it sib ata chomarpi abracham, 19c20 . is sísi nobcrete `it is ye who used to be believed,' Ml 46a13 . ní tú duindnaig són, 59c11 . Note also the following glosses, where the construction is not com- pleted in the Irish, but is to be understood from the Latin : cani tú féin gl. quis enim té discernit? `is it not thou thy- self?' Wb 8d27 . tacco is síi gl. nonne uos ante Dominum ... estis in aduentu eius ? 25a3 . ni tussu thóenur ci atbere gl. (Domine ... ego relictus sum solus, et quaerunt animam meam. Sed quid dicit illi divinum responsum ?) Reliqui mihi septem milia virorum, qui non curvaverunt genua ante Bachal, 5a28 . is tú gl. (auxilium nobis festinus impertiri) benignus (prae- ueni), Ml 100d11 . is tussu gl. tú (, inquit, consulatus es), 106d2a . is tú gl. (horum ... omnium) memor (... consurge), 137a3 . See Thurneysen, ZCP xvi 276 , and (e) below. Cf. also: cid as mó miscais lat atchí ? ... Tussu am, IT i 81.18 . is tu doróachtamar, TBFr. 159 . cía so thú dodeochaid im dáil, LU 10768 . is sib tanic, PH 1712 . an tú bhíodh ... ? más ibh, DDána 68.2 . Copula omitted: do chomdelbaid, a mo ri, | tú doru[a]ssat do nephni, SR 2174 . tu fodera a fail de, TBC 3675 . tū bus ben dō, ML² 552.

(c) In interrogative sentences with cía, cóich: cia tussu díxnigedar ? `who art thou ?' Wb 4c24 . cia thu ? PH 654 . cia tussu ? TBC 927 . cia sibh-si féin ? ML² 1417 . coich thussu ? LU 3328 ( SC 12 ). TBC 1413 . Note also: cid bé cia thú, TTebe 4721 .

(d) In Mid. and Mod. Ir. at end of sentence where a noun or adj. follows 3 s. cop. (replacing the O.Ir. personal forms of cop.): bid marb tu-ssa, PH 298 . co n-id mog De thú, 510 . comad buidni ... sib, TTebe 2144 . ní soileagtha thú tairsibh, TD 2.18 . in budh geall ... dam-sa sib ? ML² 1421 . is firindech ... tú fein, St. Ercuil 1822 . Cf. an dibh tusa ? 1845 . With omission of copula: ingrentig ... tu-sa, PH 1750 . cáor do mhíanach Ádhaimh ibh, IGT Decl. ex. 1594 . meic da Niall ibh, Ir. Texts ii 34 § 26 . Supple- menting second pers. of cop.: is-at glana sib, PH 5263.

(e) In absolute constructions. With os (later ┐. See ocus and 2 os): cid os tú, a dé `even Thou, O God' gl. ipse, Ml 43a18 . os tu gl. prosequutor, 92a2 . os tu, a dáe gl. arbiter, 92a14 . os tú gl. tute, tutemet, Sg. 201b20 - 21 . See also under (b) above. ┐ tu hi t'ebraige, PH 81 . ┐ sib dóine, 5785 . ┐ tú fein ... ar imgabail do brathar, TTebe 4375 . ┐ tú gan chloidhem, TBC p. 415 n. 3 . Note also: 'sgan tú reimhe id ridire, TD 1.32 . In phr. mad tú (lit. if it be thou ) as part of the subject (you and I) of a verb in 1 pl.: dia ndernam mád tú caratrad if you and I form a friendship, LU 10918 . See Thurn. KZ xlviii 51 . With poss. adj.: cid ar muinterni mattú gl. [discant] autem et nostri `even our household as well as thou,' Wb. 31d16 . Emphasising the subject of a following verb: cid sisi dano ronfitid ni `that even you also know us,' Wb. 15c28 . ┐ tussu a daltáin, cid am gena dana? TBC 555 . With impv.: tusa atá it chod- ladh, éirigh, TSh. 1696 . With foll. prep.: sib-si din, do génntib dúib, PH 1706 . tusa didiu curfed-sa ceist fort, St. Ercuil 1307 . Various: sissi in Domino gl. ego confido in uobis in Domino, Wb. 20b3 . sissi iarum `ye afterwards,' 21c5 . tú ar toil cháigh, TD 1.55 .

(f) In comparative sentences of various types: ní cumme et tuss[u], Wb 6b25 . ni cumme et sissi, 14a30 . ní laugi a bríig less quam tú `He cares for him not less than for thee,' 6b12 . amal tu, PH 158 . amal tussu, IT i 72.z . mar túsa, ni triath mar tú, 163.4 . caradrad fhir mar thusu, TTebe 67 7. madh treise é na thú, St. Ercuil 2317 . oireacht mar ibh, DDána 71.22 . iná ibh `lochtach,' Gloss.

(g) After acht: ní con fil nach naile ... duindainsed dam inna hulise acht tusu tóinur a dáe, Ml 78b18 . co nach bfuil- míd re fáth ngluinn | acht misi ┐ tusa, a Chonaill, ML² 939.

(h) In Mid. and Mod. Ir. with 3 s. of active verbs replacing the O.Ir. second pers. forms: in fhacca tu-sa ? PH 2707 . da lecea tú, 2815 . in tabair sib ? 2906 . rafider tusa, TTebe 1348 . co buigbed sibsi, 2180 . biaidh tú, TD 1.26 . do fhágaibh tú, TSh. 5630.

2 Emphatic form as voc.: a thvsv ` O thou ,' literal transl. of Lat. o mea tu, Sg. 204b6 .

3 In Mid. and Mod. Ir. as acc. after trans. vbs., replacing O.Ir. inf. pron.: conná fostba sib , LU 5871 . tanairsed in fer ... sibsi, 7483 . ro charas tusai, IT i 120.22 . guidim ... sib-se, PH 1978 . sealbhuighim sibh, Studies 1919, 440 § 14 . ní threicfe sé thú, St. Ercuil 2290 . ní aithnim thú, TSh. 6404 . cia ... do chuir air an tsaoghal thú ? Donl. 8.6 . do lenus ... ibh, Aisl. Tund. 96.4 . Supplementing inf. pron.: ro-t-millis tú fén ┐ ro-t-millis sin-ne uli, PH 3930 . ni hed no-bar-furgfe sib, TBC 2091 (leg. -si ?).

4 In Mid. and Mod. Ir. replacing O.Ir. inf. pron. with passive (impersonal) verbs: ni herfaider ... sibsi, LU 1571 . piannfaither thú, PH 296 . do-rigned tu-sa, 2659 . leig- figther tú fein as mar tai, TTebe 4028 . do fag[bhadh ?] ... tú, St. Ercuil 2433.

5 With verbal noun: togu damsa anísin túsu ind sainriud dia nertad sech cách, Pcr. 2a2 . in fīr ... tusso do rainn na-mmuicce ? ScM.² 15 . ní co ndeine tú fén do ícc, PH 3337 . is lor lindi ... thussu d' [fh]ortacht, TTebe 1771 . is docuir lium sib fein do leigin as, St. Ercuil 1421 . is edh is ail lium tusa ... do thabhairt, 1920 . ní fiú mise, thusa ... do theacht chugam, Donl. 256.19 .

6 gen. s.: nī nad bī tái (sic leg.), Corm. Y 532 . is and nad bí muí na taí, LU 10848 = tui `there, is neither mine nor thine,' Ériu xii 180.15 . pl. sethar[si] gl. uestram, Wb 1b2 . hi cill indala sar (prob. leg. sár, Thurn. Gramm. p. 279 ) `in the church of one of the twain of you,' Trip. 158.8 . ra nechtar fathar, IT i 336.13 (Eg.) =nechtar dé, 292.4 . bid liath cechtar fathar do inchinn a cheile uaibh each of you, BNnÉ 303.16 . For unaccented forms used as poss. adj. see do, 1 t, 2 t, 1 for.

Of the second person singular of verbs: ó indscni thú, IGT Verbs § 1.

II Infixed forms. In O. Ir. and early Mid. Ir. used to express the acc. (also occas. dat.) with active, and (also occas. dat.), with passive verbs, see Thurn. Gramm. § 409 , KZ xlviii 48.50 . In later Mid. Ir. the infixed form gradually falls into disuse, giving way to the independent. See Ó Catháin, ZCP xix 1 ff. , Strachan, Ériu i 153 ff.

(a) O. Ir. forms.

(i) After ro, no, do, di, fo, ar, im(m), ní: s. -t- (leniting). pl. -b- (occas. -f- before vowels).

(ii) After etar, for, frith, con: s. tot, tat, t (leniting). pl. dob, dub, tob (tof), tab. In this case the finals of frith and con are assimilated to the inf. pron. giving frit-, cot-; the pre- verbs ad-, aith-, ess-, in-, oss- here fall together as at- (ad-, add-, atd-, att-).

(iii) In rel. clauses and after dia n- ` if ,' ara `that,' co n- `so that,' and the interrogative in: s. dat, dit (leniting). pl. dob, dub (dib), dab.

After nach, nách (from na, ná, nád) the forms are the same as in (iii) without the preceding dental. For full collections of inf. pron. in O.Ir. Glosses see Sommer, ZCP i 177 ff.

(b) Exx. of inf. pron. in dat. sense: nítta ní indit móide `thou hast nothing for thee to boast in,' Wb 2b12 . rotbia less lóg do daggníma, 6a11 . robbia indocbál, 13d32 . ind indocbál nobtá in futuro, 14c16 . tresindippiat fochricci, 25d8 . rot-bia són, ScM.² 12 . rot bía-su aní sin, IT i 120.30 . níp-thá cumac dó, MU² 948 . níbat écen, 1037 . bethib sūirsi lim-sa, ZCP viii 316.5 . Cf. dot-luid `thou camest,' ScM.² 13 (Thurn. compares co ṅdechaid a altaib dō, TBC² 2995 ). But with fil the pron. is acc.: nachibfel ` ye are not ,' Wb 3b19 . condibfeil i corp crist `so that ye are,' 24c4 . ma nudubfeil `if ye are,' 19c20 . uair nachat filsiu since thou art not, LU 8823.

(c) Later treatment of inf. pron.: on ló rodattuistigad since the day thou wert created, SR 1780 . tria báes nach dotromarbus, 1908 . inab-testa-si tesbuid a hEmuin ? IT i 144.19 . The usual form of the sing. in Mid. Ir. is -t-. In pl. the form bar of the poss. adj. commonly replaces the O. Ir. form: forbia log far n-imarbos, SR 1448 . no-bor- mairfither, IT i 75.3 . iss me ro-bur-fucc, 139.21 . ni hed no-bar-furgfe-sib, TBC 2090 . ro-bar-saebad-si, PH 984 . ro-farcruthaigfe, 6617 . robarbia fálti, LL 333a33 . See also Éigse ii 117 ff.

III Suffixed forms with vb.: s. -at, -ut, pl. -b. With cop. in dat. sense (treated as infixed forms by Thurn. Gramm. § 427 ): isat dílmainsiu `it is free to Thee,' Ml 55d21 . níb écen lóg, Wb 16e17 . uair atabair ecen, LU 8097 (see Ériu i 160 ). Hence the later second pers. forms of copula isat, atabar, see is.

With subst. vb. tathut cenn céit míle, Fél. July 24 . tāthut airle lim-sa, ScM.² 3 (4.11) . tathut fáelte `thou art welcome,' SC 10 . With other vbs. in acc. sense: nóithut búaid ngoire `verherrlicht dich,' ZCP xi 80.11 . feartot it serves thee, Auraic. 1619 (cf. ZCP xvii 293 ). sóerfudut, LU 6322.

IV Suffixed forms with prepp.: s. -t, pl. -ib; see under the several prepositions.

V As emphasising pron., s. -su (leniting, Thurn. Gramm. p. 146 . See Thes. i 91 n. g ), after palatals -siu (cf. also indiutsiu, Ml 107a15 . deit su , 129d22 . daitso, LU 10785 ). Also -so, -seo (occas. in Glosses, more frequ. in Mid. Ir.): détso, Wb. 6e7 . latso, 12d20 , 16b11 . asṁbir so ... ní sluindi so ... duit so, Sg. 208b5 . bia-so, IT i 81.19 . do menma-so, ScM.² 3 . -seo, LU 8776 , 10745 , PH 1563 . In Mid. and Mod. Ir. -sa, -si (-se): -sa, PH 2231 . ML² 497 . -si, IT i 139.23 . PH 693 . St. Ercuil 681 . -se, PH 6564 . TSh. 284 . Note also let-sae, IT i 122.13 . i t-agaidsea, PH 8194 . pl. -si. Later also -se, LU 9205 , PH 595 , TSh. 292 . In PH somet. -siu, PH 624 , 2537 . ? -sib, TBC 2091 (indep. form ? Or leg. -si ?).

(a) Added to independent form of pron., see I above.

(b) To subst. prec. by poss. adj.: do degnimu su, Ml 43b15 . do thimnae siu, 46c4 . frit adrad su, 136c11 . fort láimsiu, Fél. Prol. 273 . dot acallaimsiu, LU 3339 . d'fhearg- sa, Donl. 256.22 . for nindassi, Wb 7d17 . dar far cennsi, 16d8 . for nancridesi, Ml 115b13 . da bar n-athair-si, PH 2259 . da bar maithib-si, ML² 1105.

(c) To pred. of cop. in 2 pers.: air it firiansu, Ml 55d11 . isat dílmainsiu, 55d21 . isatt ailsiu damsa I desire thee, LU 3919 . at mallachda-su, PH 2328 . nídad ferrsi, Wb 8c7 . adib cretmigsi, 15a8 . hore adib foirbthisi, 16a28 . adib dessimrecht si, 25d8 . With omission of cop.: fáiltisi `ye are joyous,' 24c13 .

(d) Emphasising subj. of vb. used in 2 pers.: dunecom- nachtsu, Ml 56a18 . asṁbir siu, Sg. 208b5 . i ṁbísiu, Fél. Prol. 274 . fégsu, LU 3885 . benfa-sa, ML² 511 . do-rigni[s]- si, PH 2708 . do-gebhair-si, St. Ercuil 681 . atasamlibid si, Wb 5a13 . ní biedsi, 9b17 . décid-si, MU² 946 . anda thaisi (=in-dáthe-si), RC iii 345.5 . cia r-élnebair-si, PH 4530 . gabhaidh-si, Donl. xiii 19.

(e) Added to verbal forms containing inf. pron. of 2 pers.: nutsoesiu, Ml 112b6 . dundatresiu `to strip thee,' 133a14 . nachat filsiu, LU 8823 . ro-t-gaired-su, PH 1791 . is-at gliccu-sa, 4135 . nobsóirfasi dia, Wb 11b4 . nachib- erpidsi, 22d6 . robcarsi tiamthe, 23d4 . codobemthar si, Ml 53b15 . ro-bar-saebad-si, PH 985.

(f) To prepp. with suff. pron. of 2 pers., see the several prepp.