som

Cite this: eDIL s.v. som or dil.ie/38431

Forms: som, sum, sam, sem, sium, atcomlasom, asbeirsom, doibsem, asrubartsum, sesum, gníthisium, sluindithsem, donucsum, menmasam, som, sum, sam, ndálsom, theglach-sum, marat- sam, som, sem, seom, sim, sium, siom, laissom, raithsium, mbuaidseom, sessem, sesim, siom, laisiom, som, hésom, hesom, seatsom, éseom, é-sium, sesim, sesom, iat-som, iat-sum, iad-sam, errusom, airriusom, cucisom, cuci-sium, cuigi-sem, cuccusom, chuca-sum, desom, desium, dib- sium, dosom, dossom, dosom, do-sum, doibsom, doibsem, doibsem, doaibsem, doib-sium, doibsiom, doib- sim, foirsom, fairsom, foirsem, fairsium, forrusom, foraib- sem, forrasum, frissom, frissim, frissium, friusom, indsom, andsom, annsom, indibsom, indibsem, immi-sium, lessom, lesom, lessem, laissem, laisem, leissem, laisiom, laisim, leisim, lessium, leosom, leusom, leosom, leo-sum, muir- som, huadsom, uaidibsom, huadibsem, uaidibsium, aigisium, aco-sum, aca-samh, remisium, rompa-som, tritsom, triitsom, tremitsium

emphasizing particle 3 s. masc. and neut. and 3 pl. of all genders. Initial never lenited, see Thurn. Gramm. § 231 (6).

Forms: som is the usual form in the O.Ir. Glosses, though sum, sam are occasionally found. A special form after palatals sem is very rare in the older glosses and does not become common until Sg.; sium occurs a few times in Ml.: atcomlasom, Wb. 25b16 . asbeirsom, 4d17 . doibsem, 28d19 . asrubartsum, Ml. 43d1 . sesum, 32a5 . gníthisium, 30b20 . sluindithsem, Sg. 30a2 . donucsum, Tur. 39 . a menmasam , Thes. ii 293.15 .

Later som, sum, sam are found after non-palatal endings: a ndálsom , Fél. Oct. 28 . a theglach-sum , TBC 5973 . marat- sam, Ériu iii 148 § 3 ; som, sem, seom, sim, sium, siom after a palatal: laissom, Mon. Tall. 3 (128.9) . dia raithsium , Fél. Ep. 165 . a mbuaidseom , Sept. 2 . sessem, Mon. Tall. 5 (129.12) . sesim, 19 (134.4) . bui siom , 60 (149.18) . laisiom, 85 (162.10) . In Early Mod.Ir. it is unusual to find som after a palatal ending.

Usage:

(a) With pronouns: hésom, Wb. 2b9 . hesom, 7c8 . ol seatsom , Ml. 19d2 . éseom, MU² 1036 . é-sium, TBC 1744 . sesim, Mon. Tall. 19 (134.4) . sesom, 6 (129.30) . iat-som, PH 515 . iat-sum, 2590 . iad-sam, TTebe 3913 .

(b) Emphasizing the pronominal element in possessives: a montar som inso this is his household, Wb. 7c5 . tria hesséirge- som, 2d8 . delb a baissom, 24a8 . trea naslachsom, 30c14 . a soiradsom `their deliverance', Ml. 30b18 . iarna cétbuidsem `according to their opinion', Sg. 40a15 . indilsi a seoitsom, Laws ii 290.21 . am rathsa dia raithsium I am a surety for his grace, Fél. Ep. 165 . ro lámair a nguinsom who has dared to slay them, Prol. 58 . iarna saethur gairsom `after their short labour', 59 . fora muimesium, Trip.² 156 . dotháod día accaldim som, Mon. Tall. 2 (127.15) . tara sharugud-sumh, Lism. L. 3087 . ina chomdail-sim, St. Ercuil 289 . Emphasizing a partitive genitive: is ball didiu cachháe som `each of them then is a member', Wb. 27b8 .

(c) Emphasizing the subject of the copula: mad fochriccsom, Wb. 2b26 . is primitsom, 13b24 . it domini som, 13a23 . amal as firiansom, 22a24 . bid maidsom, 5d39 . duaidbetar ata firiensom `they are shewn to be just', Ml. 30b2 . condat anman som, Sg. 188b3 . is tualaing som forgell for cach recht, Laws i 78.19 . ní tiamdae timsom `He is not slow or feeble', Fél. Prol. 259 . it soirseom `they are noble', Sept. 2 . is glan-som uile, PH 5262 . When the pred. is qualified by a defining gen. som precedes the latter: rombo descipulsom apstal `that he was a disciple of apostles', Wb. 18d1 . ar ropo eola som na huile fetarlice `for he was skilled in the whole Old Testament', 30c17 .

(d) Emphasizing the subject of active verbs: is hed ón saigessom `this is what he aims at', Wb. 22a3 . in dóinecht araróit som, 4b19 . ni ceilsom, 4d16 . ished tinfetsom, 4b4 . amal bete som, 9c10 . arna arróimatsom `lest they should re- ceive', 14d37 . intan asmbeirsom, 34d5 . in soirad donerchanat- som ar thuus the deliverance that they prophesy at first, 19b11 . asbeir sem, Sg. 39a25 . conétet som, 197b17 . air in testimni donucsum riam, Tur. 39 . fuachaidsem, Thes. ii 293.22 . ro aemustairsom sin, Laws i 6.17 . dodíussaig-som, Trip.² 157 . téitsium ass, TBFr. 215 . an cein marat-sam, Ériu iii 148 § 3 .

(e) Suffixed to active verbs with infixed or suffixed pron., and emphasizing either the pronoun or the subject of the verb: atcomlasom he joins himself, Wb. 25b16 . atbeirsom he says it, 27c18 . nosnguidsom `he beseeches them', 25b9 . danuic- som, Ml. 38c4 . nisgaib som lius `no disgust seizes them', 34b6 . cach roda-ortsom `everyone who has killed them', Fél. Prol. 57 . ma danetarredsom dagmenme, Mon. Tall. 40 (143.4) . gníthi- sium fadesin `he makes himself', Ml. 30b20 . in .xxx. pater . . . gaibthussom eidi `he sings them', Mon. Tall. 30 (138.29) . gabtisom `he sings it', 31 (140.2) .

(f) Emphasizing the subject of passive verbs: airmither-sum ar athair dona huile iressachaib, PH 5689 . ni foruaisligter- som o nach mod, 5869 . cia moltar-som o dóinib, 6078 .

(g) With conjugated prepositions: errusom, Wb. 11a29 . airriusom, Sg. 4a8 . cucisom, Wb. 9d14 . cuci-sium, Sc.M² 1 . cuigi-sem, ML² 1259 . cuccusom, Wb. 14d30 . chuca-sum, PH 6655 . desom, Ml. 22d19 , 38c9 . desium, Hib. Min. 371 . dib- sium, ML² 1912 . dosom, Wb. 1b5 , 9c10 , 14d37 . dossom, 6d10 , 9d8 . dosom, Sg. 148a6 . do-sum, St. Ercuil 551 . doibsom, Wb. 13b11 . doibsem, 28d19 . doibsem, Sg. 40a15 . doaibsem, 50a3 . doib-sium, Sc.M² 3 . doibsiom, Mon. Tall. 64 (152.30) . doib- sim, ML² 1575 . foirsom, Wb. 8c1 . fairsom, 7c4 . foirsem, Sg. 209b12 . fairsium, Sc.M² 10 R . forrusom, Wb. 9c10 . foraib- sem, Sg. 207a8 . forrasum, PH 5031 . frissom, Wb. 5d39 . frissim, Mon. Tall. 24 (136.14) . frissium, PH 97 . friusom, Wb. 20c5 . indsom, Wb. 4d6 . andsom, 13b31 . Sg. 197b1 . annsom, Fél. Prol. 260 . indibsom, Wb. 16c4 . indibsem, Sg. 5a4 . immi-sium, TBC 981 . lessom, Wb. 3d5 . lesom, Sg. 5a10 . lessem, 77b6 . laissem, 149b4 . laisem, 158b6 . leissem, 10a11 . laisiom, Mon. Tall. 64 (152.29) . laisim, 2 (127.16) . leisim, 57 (148.20) . lessium, PH 5160 . leosom, Wb. 2b3 . leusom, Sg. 5b42 , Ml. 33b3 . leosom, Sg. 28a18 . leo-sum, ML² 1107 . muir- som, Fél. Prol. 60 (mar). huadsom, Ml. 19c5 . uaidibsom, Wb. 9d14 . huadibsem, Sg. 156a2 . uaidibsium, PH 4353 . aigisium, Sc.M² 4 R . aco-sum, PH 90 . aca-samh, TTebe 817 . remisium, TBFr. 252 . rompa-som, PH 256 . tritsom, Wb. 27c2 . triitsom, 26a20 . tremitsium, PH 2153 . See also 6 sa, sin, so.