H

Cite this: eDIL s.v. H or dil.ie/26858

Forms: úath

eighth letter of the Irish alphabet and first letter of the second or h group in the Ogam alphabet, Auraic. 1138, 4229 , IGT Introd. § 4 , consonant with masc. gender but not a letter (gion gur litear é), § 17 ( Auraic. 3559 . See Lewis and Short, A Latin dictionary s.v. h ). Cf. Graim. 2899 - 02 . Ogam 3 úath white-thorn . See Meroney, Speculum xxiv 28 (thorn-like shape of corresponding Ogam letter, infl. of h-like abbrev. for Latin autem). Not in earlier ogam inscriptions in Irish, Macalister, Corpus Inscriptionum Insularum Celticarum i , v , Thurn. Gramm. 10 . Cf. Menueh, Thes. ii 288.35 and note. Indicates length in prec. vowel in Ternohc (= Ternóc), 289.18 .

In O. Ir. initial (and rarely medial) h is without phonetic value, Thurn. Gramm. 19 . In some wds. h- perh. from *y or *p, Ped. i 410 (see Thurn. Gramm. 140 ). In humaldoit, Wb. 6d5, 8d26 (beside umaldóit, 13a17 ) (Lat. humilitat- U 81.68) h- may be treated as mute, Thurn. Gramm. 20 ; in arch. menmnihi, Wb. 18a21 (a prima manu), represents -ch-, ib. On intervocalic -h- in Mid. Ir. (ahé, LU 7008 ) see BDD² 595 n. ; in ahel (A 87.31) perh. a mark of hiatus. In ahæ (A 87.28) interj. gl. hem, Ml. 131c3 , -h- not merely graphic. Cf. ahé above and article below.

Somet. for th. Note Clohnai = Clothnai, Ann. Inisf. 1176.2 (see Facsimile, Introd. 16 ).

In later spelling prefixed to initial stressed vowels after

(i) g s f., n a p. f. and n. of def. article, see I 184.79-81, 185.19, 20, 21, 24, 37. After cacha, cecha ( Thurn. Gramm. 151 ), g s f. of cach, cech, later also after cacha, cecha with masc., C 2.65, 75, 3.4. In later Ir. before initial vowel of a noun with pl. form difft. from the sg. after trí, sé, cheithre, cheathra (cethair), IGT Decl. Introd. 8 § 18. See Thurn. Gramm. 151, 153 . After día, dé as gen. of time in dia haoine dídine and other exx. See 3 día and 1 díden, Thurn. Gramm. 151 .

(ii) After (proclitic) na n a s. n. of 1 nach, Thurn. Gramm. 151, 309 : ní epur na haill, Thes. ii , xxii.14 ( Sg. 217 marg. inf. ).

(iii) After nom. of io-stems as proclitics, Thurn. Gramm. 151 . S. ua hImair, AU i 440.7 . After in dara (earlier indala), Thurn. Gramm. 151 . See I 214.65, 69. After 1 cía Thurn. Gramm. 292 .

(iv) After a poss. adj. 3 s f. See Ériu xxiii 101 on retention of h following a her: a hétach, Fraech 210 . See 2 a.

(v) After forms of the copula, Thurn. Gramm. 152 , TD Introd. lxxvii f. , Stories fr. Keating xxiii : pret. 3 s. ba, fa, I 318.21, (exx.) 273.36, 262.15; pres. indic. neg. 3 s. ní, I 305.69, 72-3, 81-2 (exx.) 85, ni hinann, O'C. 78 ( H. 3.18, 61a ); fut. 3 s. (abs.) budh hiomdha, DDána 29.29 .

(vi) After prepp., Thurn. Gramm. 152 , see A 6.45, C 271.78, 273.43, F 413.62, L 4.79, 5.1, 20, 6.84, 7.76.

(vii) Before verbal forms, Thurn. Gramm. 152 . After particles ro (do), neg. ní, shown before passive forms in mid. and mod. Ir.: ro hathchummad (pret. pass.), LU 7995 . ro hainced, TBC 4510 , do hairmhedh, Caithr. CC § 60 (36.13) . ra hachnít, TBC 76 . ní hantoir (pres. indic. pass.), Sits v (1919) 93 § 29 . ni hairemthar (fut. (?) pass.), RC xviii 173.12 (Tig.). ní himmertha (condit. pass. sg.?), TBC 2874 After mani: muna hairgithur, Laws ii 2.23 Comm. Exx. cited N 42.59 of written h- prefixed to active verbs after neg. partic. ní in SR are not decisive. Note -hinneosfam (fut. 1 p.) Keat. ii 6370 .

After 2 ná, neg. particle in rel. clause: in tí na haittrebann (pres. indic. 3 s.), PH 2074 .na rig . . . herlathrighit, 4226 . After 3 ná (ar ná etc.) (subord. conj. introd. neg. clause), Thurn. Gramm 152 . in tan na hantai (indic. pres. 2 s.), LU 9003 . conna hanat (subj. pres. 3 p.), LL 13359 . arnā hēilnet, Corm. Y 1082 . After 1 ná (adv. of negation) followed by impv. (and subj.); na hadair, PH 7310 . na himighed i sdaighri, Rosa Ang. 242.17 .

(viii) After 4 ná, Thurn. Gramm. 153 , perh. phonetic in grāin nā hirḟūath, Arch. iii 5.8 . na haimbil, Laws ii 46.1 .

(ix) After particle a before some numerals with vocalic initial where no noun follows, see 3 a, Sc. G. Stud. v 42 f. , Thurn. Gramm. 153 .

No doubt also after assa with compar., see Thurn. Gramm. 153 , but no exx. available.